From a correspondent in Taiwan who wishes to remain anonymous:
Sometimes the word 'taikonaut' will be seen in news articles about PRC astronauts. This cuto-chinoiserie is really stupid. The premise seems to be that since Russian astronauts are called cosmonauts, PRC astronauts ought to have a special name too.
So, from tàikōngrén ('spaceman') is devised the word taiko[ngren] + naut = taikonaut
But, In China an astronaut is no more called a 'spaceman' than he is in the US. An astronaut is either a hángtiānyuán or less frequently and more old fashioned, a yǔhángyuán . The second is itself actually a translation of 'astronaut/cosmonaut', so there are really no operations of the desired type that could be performed on it. The first could be rendered celestonaut or uranonaut. But idiocy is not that intelligent.
Syllable by syllable, the Chinese words may be broken down thus:
tàikōngrén 太空人 highest – emptiness – man
hángtiānyuán 航天员 sail/navigate – sky – person/member
yǔhángyuán 宇航员 universe – sail/navigate – person/member