A couple of days ago, Language Hat hosted an interesting discussion of the "X much?" construction:
I have been asked about the history of the construction "X much?" as a rhetorical response (e.g., "Bitter much? Overanalzye much? Ad hominem much?").
He discovered that the OED has a new subentry that exactly covers it:
colloq. (orig. U.S., freq. ironic). With a preceding adjective, infinitive verb, or noun phrase, forming an elliptical comment or question.
The use was popularized by the film Buffy, the Vampire Slayer and the television series derived from it.
1988 D. Waters Heathers (film script) 15 God Veronica, drool much? His name's Jason Dean.
1988 D. Waters Heathers (film script) 86 Heather Duke. It was J.D.'s idea! He made out the signature sheet and everything. Now will you sign it. Veronica. (queasy) No. Heather Duke. Jealous much?
1992 J. Whedon Buffy the Vampire Slayer (film script) 8 A stranger, walking the other way, bumps into Buffy, doesn't stop.‥ Buffy. Excuse much! Not rude or anything.
1992 J. Whedon Buffy the Vampire Slayer (film script) 25 Pike and Benny have entered the diner, quite drunk.‥ Kimberly (to the other girls) Smell of booze much.
1998 M. Burgess & R. Green Isabella in Sopranos (television shooting script) 1st Ser. 1 42 Anthony Jr. Probably I can't go to that dance now either. Meadow. God, self-involved much?
2001 Cosmopolitan Dec. 178 You've seen them: the kinds of couples who finish each other's sentences.‥ Jealous much? Damn right.
The discussion seems to have left out one observation about the relevant background sense of much (perhaps because it's obvious), namely that it's become a polarity item. At some point, things like "It matters much" became archaic:
|I don't like him much||Do you like him much?||*I like him much|
|You don't sleep much||Do you sleep much?||*You sleep much|
|It doesn't matter much||Does it matter much?||*It matters much|
|It doesn't cost much||Does it cost much?||*It costs much|
|He isn't hurt much||Is he hurt much?||*He's hurt much|
|She isn't there much||Is she there much?||*She's there much|
Combined with the general tendency to omit more-or-less redundant beginnings of questions, this gives a fairly common and unremarkable old-fashioned version of X much, simply by leaving out the initial auxiliary and pronoun:
Bronson Howard, Kate, 1886:
"Recollections of an aristocrat (By 'Old calabar')", Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, 1874:
"Blessed if it ain't Captain Swellington! Here, John, jump down. Hurt much, sir?"
The innovation, as the OED implies and various of hat's commenters note more explicitly, is to generalize X much to instantiations of X that would not normally take the polarity-item much as an intensifying adjunct, at least not in the same meaning. Thus
"Are you jealous much?"
is grammatical, but would traditionally mean something like "Are you often jealous?". In contrast, "jealous much?" seems to be essentially just a cute idiomatic version of the rhetorical question "jealous?"
And things like "Ad hominem much?" or "Martyr much?" are harder to relate to a full question, though perhaps "Are you being (a) ___ ?" would apply with some degree of awkwardness.
On the other hand, in some non-standard varieties of (American?) English, the boundaries of much as a polarity intensifier seem to be somewhat wider. Thus "How Pickles joined his uncle", NYT 7/21/1895:
After a little their grub was get ready in the camp-house an' Bill and Pickles walks over side an' side. They goes in an' shuts the door an' in about five minutes bang! bang! goes two six-shooters an' we all gone over an' finds Bill eatin' away all right an' Pickles over the other side with his head in his tin plate an' his brains runnin' out over his left eye.
"It don't look like Pickles was hungry much, after all," says Bill.