Under the heading Freedom 2014, "Whether it’s freedom from surveillance or freedom to be single, this spring the BBC is investigating what freedom means in the modern world". One of the BBC's own contributions to #Freedom2014 is a lovely addition to our No Word For X archive:
— BBC World Service (@bbcworldservice) April 1, 2014
I'll leave it to better-informed commenters to tell us how to express various concepts of freedom in Inuit — but my guess is that "not caught" is one of a number of perfectly reasonable Inuit phrases for various senses of English free. Certainly as hunter-gatherers in marginal terrain the Inuit must have experienced many kinds of freedom in their history — though perhaps they would echo what Matthew Arnold said about philistinism: "We have not the expression in English. Perhaps we have not the word because we have so much of the thing."
If phrases like "not caught" seem inadequately abstract or general, it's worth remembering the etymological history of our own word free — according to the OED the development is from "around" to "one's own" to "(members of the household who are) one's own blood (as opposed to slaves)":
Cognate with Old Frisian frī (West Frisian frij ), Middle Dutch vrī , vrīe , vrijch , vrijg (Dutch vrij ), Old Saxon frī (only in frīlīk freely adj.; Middle Low German vrī , vrig , vryg ), Old High German frī (Middle High German vrī , German frei ), Gothic freis < the same Indo-European base as Sanskrit priya beloved, dear, (rare) friendly, Avestan friia beloved, dear, Welsh rhydd free. Icelandic frí (16th cent.), Old Swedish frir (Swedish fri ), Old Danish fri (Danish fri ), all in sense ‘free’ are ultimately borrowings < Middle Low German; the usual early Scandinavian word for ‘free’ is represented by Old Icelandic frjáls , lit. ‘free-neck’ (see frels v.). Compare also from the same Indo-European base Sanskrit priyā wife, Old English frīg love, (plural) affections, Old English Frīg the name of the goddess Frig (see Friday n.), and (in a different declension) Old English frēo woman (rare: see note), Old Saxon frī woman, wife. Compare free v., friend n., frith n.1, Friday n.
The original sense of the Indo-European base has been conjectured to be ‘one's own’ (perhaps ultimately related to the Indo-European base of Greek περί (preposition and adverb) round, around, round about: see peri- prefix), the better to explain the divergent development of sense in the different languages. Whereas the sense ‘beloved, dear’ is reflected in the Sanskrit and Avestan adjectives as well as in senses of the verbal and nominal derivatives in all the Indo-European branches in which they are attested (compare the cognates cited above and also those listed at free v.), the sense ‘free, not in servitude’ appears to be a peculiarity of Germanic and Celtic. This sense perhaps arose from the application of the word as the distinctive epithet of those members of the household who were ‘one's own blood’, i.e. who were connected by ties of kinship with the head, as opposed to the unfree slaves. In the context of wider society only the former would have full legal rights, and hence, taken together, they would comprise the class of the free, as opposed to those in servitude. Compare the Old English compounds frēobearn free-born child, child or descendant of one's own blood, frēobrōðor one's own brother, frēodohtor free-born daughter, daughter of one's own blood, frēomǣg one's own kinsman, and see further M. Scheller Vedisch ‘priyá-’ u. die Wortsippe ‘frei, freien, Freund’ (1959), D. H. Green Lang. & Hist. Early Germanic World (1998) 39–41. [emphasis added]
So, if we wanted to pursue the etymological fallacy to its logical conclusion in this case, we'd have to admit that the English concept of freedom is inextricably xenophobic, meaning something like "the state of being a privileged insider".
In contrast, the Romance forms derived from Latin libertas "liberty" and liber "free" derive from an Indo-European root *lewdʰ-o- that apparently also gave us Latin libido "pleasure, unlawful or inordinate desire, passion, caprice, wilfulness, wantonness", Greek λιφ- "to desire", English libertine, etc. So we can add (misleadingly but not without philological justification) that liberty is etymologically the pursuit of selfish pleasure. (Alas, lewd is not from the same source…)
In comparison, "not caught" seems pretty reasonable, as does the Chinese 自由 (zì yóu), which in Literary Sinitic was originally "self + follow/from/due to", i.e., "deriving from self", implying "to make decisions for oneself", "to be one's own master", "to take one's own initiative", "not to be constrained and restricted".
Victor Mair explained to me that
This is one of those terms that I call "round-trip words" (start in China, go to Japan where they pick up a new [usually Western] meaning, and then go back to China with that new meaning). [...] It started in Literary Sinitic as early as New Songs from the Jade Terrace (specific citation here), and first reenters Chinese with the new meaning of "freedom" from the Japanese calque jiyū around 1868.
[Tip of the hat to Robert Pryor]