Copyright (C) 1994,1995,1996, 1997 James William Breen

Freeware Japanese/English Dictionary file, coordinated by Jim Breen.


The version date and sequence number is included in the dictionary itself under the entry "EDICT". (Actually it is under the JIS-ASCII code "????". This keeps it as the first entry when it is sorted.)

The master copy of EDICT is in the pub/nihongo directory of ftp.cc.monash.edu.au. There are other copies around, but they may not be as up-to-date. The easy way to check if the version you have is the latest is from the size/date.

As of V96-001, the EDICT file no longer contains proper names. These have been moved to a separate file called "ENAMDICT".


EDICT is the outcome of a voluntary project to produce a freely available Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form. It was intended initially for use with MOKE (Mark's Own Kanji Editor) and related software such as JDIC and JREADER, however it has come to be used in a large number of packages.

The EDICT file is copyright, and is distributed in accordance with the EDICT Licence Statement included at Appendix A.


EDICT's format is that of the original "EDICT" format used by MOKE. It uses EUC coding for kana and kanji, however this can be converted to JIS or SJIS by any of the several conversion programs around. It is a text file with one entry per line. The format of entries is:

KANJI [KANA] /English_1/English_2/.../


KANA /English_1/.../

(NB: Only the KANJI and KANA are in EUC; all the other characters, including spaces, must be ASCII.)

The English translations are deliberately brief, as the application of the dictionary is expected to be primarily on-line look-ups, etc.

The EDICT file is not intended to have its entries in any particular order. In fact it almost always is in order as a bye-product of the update method I use, however there is no guarantee of this. (The order is almost always JIS + alphabetical, starting with the headword.)


EDICT consists of:

(a) the basic EDICT distributed with MOKE 2.0. This was compiled by MOKE's author, Mark Edwards, with assistance from Spencer Green. Mark has very kindly released this material to the EDICT project. A number of corrections were made to the MOKE original, e.g. spelling mistakes, minor mistranslations, etc. It also had a lot of duplications, which have been removed. It contained about 1900 unique entries. Mark Edwards has also kindly given permission for the vocabulary files developed for KG (Kanji Guess) to be added to EDICT.

(b) additions by Jim Breen. I laboriously keyed in a ~2000 entry dictionary used in my first year nihongo course at Swinburne Institute of Technology years ago (I was given permission by the authors to do this). I then worked through other vocabulary lists trying to make sure major entries were not omitted. The English-to-kana entries in the SKK files were added also. This task is continuing, although it has slowed down, and I suspect I will run out of energy eventually. Apart from that, I have made a large number of additions during normal reading of Japanese text and fj.* news using JREADER and XJDIC.

(c) additions by others. Many people have contributed entries and corrections to EDICT. I am forever on the lookout for sources of material, provided it is genuinely available for use in the Project. I am grateful to Theresa Martin who an early supplier a lot of useful material, plus very perceptive corrections. Hidekazu Tozaki has also been a great help with tidying up a lot of awry entries, and helping me identify obscure kanji compounds. Kurt Stueber has been an assiduous keyer of many useful entries. A large group of contributions came from Sony, where Rik Smoody had put together a large online dictionary. Another batch came from the Japanese-German JDDICT file in similar format that Helmut Goldenstein keyed (with permission) from the Langenscheidt edited by Hadamitzky. Harold Rowe was great help with much of the translation. During 1994, Dr Yo Tomita, then at the University of Leeds, conducted a massive proof-reading of the entire file, for which I am most grateful. Jeffrey Friedl at Omron in Kyoto has also been a most helpful contributor and error-detector. During 1995, I have been keeping an eye on the "honyaku" mailing list, wherein Japanese-English translators discuss thorny issues. From this I have derived many new entries, and many updates to existing entries. To the many honyakujin, my thanks.

A reasonably full list of contributors is at the back of this file, although I am sure to have missed a few.

At this stage EDICT has more entries than many good commercial dictionaries, which typically have 20,000+ non-name entries with examples, etc. It is certainly bigger than some of the smaller printed dictionaries, and when used in conjunction with a search-and-display program like JDIC or XJDIC it provides a highly effective on-line dictionary service.


Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissable. What makes each dictionary unique (and copyrightable) is the particular selection of words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very important point in the case of EDICT), and the means of publication. Of course, the fact that for the most part the kanji and kana of each entry are coming from public sources, and the structure and layout of the entries themselves are quite unlike those in any published dictionary, adds a degree of protection to EDICT.

The advice I have received from people who know about these things is that EDICT is just as much a new dictionary as any others on the market. Readers may see an entry which looks familiar, and say "Aha! That comes from the XYZ Jiten!". They may be right, and they may be wrong. After all there aren't too many translations of neko. Let me make one thing quite clear, despite considerable temptation (Electronic Books can be easily decoded), NONE of this dictionary came from commercial machine-readable dictionaries. I have a case of RSI in my right elbow to prove it.

Please do not contribute entries to EDICT which have come directly from copyrightable sources. It is hard to check these, and you may be jeopardizing EDICT's status.


EDICT is actually a Japanese->English dictionary, although the words within it can be selected in either language using appropriate software. (JDIC uses it to provide both E->J and J->E functionality.)

The early stages of EDICT had size limitations due to its usage (MOKE scans it sequentially and JDXGEN, which is JDIC's index generator, held it in RAM.) This meant that examples of usage could not be included, and inclusion of phrases was very limited. JDIC/JDXGEN can now handle a much larger dictionary, but the compact format has continued.

No inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, except in idiomatic expressions. Similarly particles are handled as separate entries. Adverbs formed from adjectives (-ku or ni) are generally not included. Verbs are, of course, in the plain or "dictionary" form.

In working on EDICT, bearing in mind I want to use it in MOKE and with JDIC, I have had to come up with a solution to the problem of adjectival nouns [keiyoudoushi] (e.g. kirei and kantan), nouns which can be used adjectivally with the particle "no" and verbs formed by adding suru (e.g. benkyousuru). If I put entries in edict with the "na" and "suru" included, MOKE will not find a match when they are omitted or, the case of suru, inflected. What I have decided to do is to put the basic noun into the dictionary and add "(vs)" where it can be used to form a verb with suru, "(a-no)" for common "no" usage, and "(an)" if it is an adjectival noun. Entries appear as:

KANJI [benkyou] /study (vs)/
KANJI [kantan] /simple (an)/

Where necessary, verbs are marked with "(vi)" or "(vt)" according to whether they are intransitive or transitive. (Work on this aspect is continuing.) I have also used (id) to mark idiomatic expressions, (col) for colloquialisms, (pol) for teineigo, etc.

The (current) full list of such entry markers is:

abbr abbreviation
adj adjective
adv adverb
an adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
a-no nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
arch archaism
aux auxiliary
aux v auxiliary verb
col colloquialism
fam familiar language
fem female term or language
gikun gikun (meaning) reading
gram grammatical
hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language
hum humble (kenjougo) language
I Type I (godan) verb (currently only added to verbs
where the type is not implicit)
IV Type IV (irregular) verb, such as "gozaru".
id idiomatic expression
iK word containing irregular kanji usage
ik word containing irregular kana usage
io irregular okurigana usage
MA martial arts term
male male term or language
m-sl manga slang
neg negative
neg v negative verb
obs obsolete term
obsc obscure term
oK word containing out-dated kanji
ok out-dated or obsolete kana usage
pol polite (teineigo) language
pref prefix
qv quod vide (this entry expanded in the EDICTEXT file)
sl slang
suf suffix
uK word usually written using kanji alone
uk word usually written using kana alone
vi intransitive verb
vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
vt transitive verb
vulg vulgar expression or word
X rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)

I have endeavoured to cater for many possible variants of English translation and spelling. Where appropriate different translations are included for national variants (e.g. autumn/fall). I use Oxford (British) standard spelling (-our, -ize) for the entries I make, but I leave other entries in the national spelling of the submitter.

For gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, I have attempted to indicate the source language and the word in that language. Languages have been coded in the two-letter codes from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. "(fr: avec)". See Appendix C for more on this. (Thanks to Holger Gruber for suggesting this language coding.)

Users intending to make submissions to EDICT should follow the following simple rules:

  • all verbs in plain form. The English must begin with "to ....". Add (vi) or (vt) to the first translation if the nature of the verb is not implicit in the translation(s);
  • add (an) or (a-no) or (vs) as appropriate to nouns. Do not put the "na" or "no" particles on the Japanese, or the "suru" auxiliary verb. For entries which have (vs), do not enter them as verb infinitives (e.g. "to cook"), instead enter them as gerunds/participles/whatever (e.g. cooking (vs)).
  • indicate prefixes and suffixes by "(pref)" and "(suf)" in the first English entry, not by using "-" in the kanji or kana.
  • do not add definite or indefinite articles (e.g. "a", "an", "the", etc) to English nouns unless they are necessary to distinguish the word from another usage type or homonym.
  • do not guess the kanji. One of the most persistent problems in editing EDICT is finding and eliminating incorrect kanji.
  • do not use the "/", "[" or "]" characters except in their separating roles.
  • if you are using a reference in romaji form, make sure you have the correct kana for "too/tou" and "zu", where the Hepburn romaji is often ambiguous.
  • do not use kana or kanji in the "English" fields. Where it is necessary to use a Japanese word, e.g. kanto, use Hepburn romaji.
  • make sure your kana is correct. A persistent problem is the submission of words like "honyaku" as ho+nya+ku instead of the correct ho+n+ya+ku.
  • do not include words formed by common Japanese suffixes, such as "-teki", unless they cannot be deduced from the root.


    EDICT can be used, with acknowledgement, for any purpose whatever, EXCEPT for incorporation in commercial products. It cannot be sold, except at a nominal charge for the distribution medium. Consult the EDICT Licence Statement at Appendix A.

    It is, of course, the main dictionary used by PD and GPL Copyright software such as JDIC, JREADER, XJDIC, MacJDic, etc. It can be used as the dictionary within MOKE (it may need to be renamed JTOE.DCT if used with version 2.1 of MOKE), and it is also used by the NJSTAR and JWP Word Processor packages.

    With regard to commercial products, if the developer of such a product wishes to make use of EDICT, an acceptable approach is to provide for users to obtain a copy of the EDICT file themselves and access it via the product, either with or without a provided utility program. It must not be "locked up" through a formatting or indexing system. These simple precautions avoid violation of the provisions of EDICT's Licence Statement.


    I will be delighted if people send me corrections, suggestions, and ESPECIALLY additions. Before ripping in with a lot of suggestions, make sure you have the latest version, as others may have already made the same comments.

    The preferred format for submissions is a JIS, EUC or Shift-JIS file (uuencoded for safety) containing replacement/new entries. This can be emailed to me at the address at the end of this file.

    Amendments to EDICT are carried out using a "perl" program kindly provided by Jeffrey Friedl. This program carries out additions, deletions and replacements, as well as checking the formats of the entries. I would greatly assist if all contributions to EDICT follow the format set in that program. The format consists of entries prepended by a letter to indicate the action to be carried out: A for addition, D for deletion, and E/C for a replacement pair. Alternatively, the prepended codes can be "NEW: ", "DEL: " and "old: /new: " respectively.


    AKANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/

    AKANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/

    Akana3 /new entry #3/

    EKANJI4 [kana4] /old entry to be replaced/ CKANJI4 [kana4] /replacement entry/

    DKANJI5 [kana5] /entry to be deleted/


    NEW: KANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/

    NEW: KANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/

    old: KANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
    new: KANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/

    DEL: KANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/

    Please provide an annotated reason for any deletions or amendments you send.

    The order of entries in the submission file is immaterial, however the E/C or pairs of lines must be in order.

    I prefer not to get a "diff" or "patch" file as the master EDICT is under continuous revision, and may have had quite a few changes since you got your copy.


    The following people, in roughly chronological order, have played a part in the development of EDICT.

    Mark Edwards, Spencer Green, Alina Skoutarides, Takako Machida, Theresa Martin, Satoshi Tadokoro, Stephen Chung, Hidekazu Tozaki, Clifford Olling, David Cooper, Ken Lunde, Joel Schulman, Hiroto Kagotani, Truett Smith, Mike Rosenlof, Harold Rowe, Al Harkom, Per Hammarlund, Atsushi Fukumoto, John Crossley, Bob Kerns, Frank O'Carroll, Rik Smoody, Scott Trent, Curtis Eubanks, Jamie Packer, Hitoshi Doi, Thalawyn Silverwood, Makato Shimojima, Bart Mathias, Koichi Mori, Steven Sprouse, Jeffrey Friedl, Yazuru Hiraga, Kurt Stueber, Rafael Santos, Bruce Casner, Masato Toho, Carolyn Norton, Simon Clippingdale, Shiino Masayoshi, Susumu Miki, Yushi Kaneda, Masahiko Tachibana, Naoki Shibata, Yuzuru Hiraga, Yasuaki Nakano, Atsu Yagasaki, Hitoshi Oi, Chizuko Kanazawa, Lars Huttar, Jonathan Hanna, Yoshimasa Tsuji, Masatsugu Mamimura, Keiichi Nakata, Masako Nomura, Hiroshi Kamabe, Shi-Wen Peng, Norihiro Okada, Jun-ichi Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Mizuno, Minoru Terada, Itaru Ichikawa, Toru Matsuda, Katsumi Inoue, John Finlayson, David Luke, Iain Sinclair, Warwick Hockley, Jamii Corley, Howard Landman, Tom Bryce, Jim Thomas, Paul Burchard, Kenji Saito, Ken Eto, Niibe Yutaka, Hideyuki Ozaki, Kouichi Suzuki, Sakaguchi Takeyuki, Haruo Furuhashi, Takashi Hattori, Yoshiyuki Kondo, Kusakabe Youichi, Nobuo Sakiyama, Kouhei Matsuda, Toru Sato, Takayuki Ito, Masayuki Tokoshima, Kiyo Inaba, Dan Cohn, Yo Tomita, Ed Hall, Takashi Imamura, Bernard Greenberg, Michael Raine, Akiko Nagase, Ben Bullock, Scott Draves, Matthew Haines, Andy Howells, Takayuki Ito, Anders Brabaek, Michael Chachich, Masaki Muranaka, Paul Randolph, Vesa Karhu, Bruce Bailey, Gal Shalif, Riichiro Saito, Keith Rogers, Steve Petersen, Bill Smith, Barry Byrne, Satoshi Kuramoto, Jason Molenda, Travis Stewart, Yuichiro Kushiro Keiko Okushi, Wayne Lammers, Koichi Fujino, Joerg Fischer, Satoru Miyazaki, Gaspard Gendreau, David Olson, Peter Evans, Steven Zaveloff, Larry Tyrrell, Heinz Clemencon, Justin Mayer, David Jones, Holger Gruber, David Wilson, John De Hoog, Stephen Davis, Dan Crevier, Ron Granich, Bruce Raup, Scott Childress, Richard Warmington, Jean-Jacques Labarthe, Matt Bloedel, Szabolcs Varga, Alan Bram, Hidetaka Koie, David Villareale, Hirokazu Ohata, Toshiki Sasabe, William Maton, Tom Salmon, Kian Yap, Paul Denisowski, Glen Pankow.

    Jim Breen (jwb@dgs.monash.edu.au) Department of Digital Systems Monash University Clayton 3168 AUSTRALIA


    Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996 James William Breen

    This licence statement and copyright notice applies to the EDICT Japanese/English Dictionary file, the associated documentation file EDICT.DOC, and any data files which are derived from them.


    Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of these files provided this copyright notice and permission notice is distributed with all copies. Any distribution of the files must take place without a financial return, except a charge to cover the cost of the distribution medium.

    Permission is granted to make and distribute extracts or subsets of the EDICT file under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies.

    Permission is granted to translate the English elements of the EDICT file into other languages, and to make and distribute copies of those translations under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies.


    These files may be freely used by individuals, and may be accessed by software belonging to, or operated by, such individuals.

    The files, extracts from the files, and translations of the files must not be sold as part of any commercial software package, nor must they be incorporated in any published dictionary or other printed document without the specific permission of the copyright holder.


    Copyright over the documents covered by this statement is held by James William BREEN.


    As some of the material in edict has been derived from entries in the dictionaries of the "Wnn" project, it is appropriate to draw attention to the copyright statement of that project. /*
    * Copyright Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences
    * 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
    * Copyright OMRON Corporation. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
    * Copyright ASTEC, Inc. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
    * Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software
    * and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
    * provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
    * 1) The above copyright notices appear in all copies
    * 2) Both those copyright notices and this permission notice appear
    * in supporting documentation
    * 3) The name of "Wnn" isn't changed unless substantial modifications
    * are made, or
    * 3') Following words followed by the above copyright notices appear
    * in all supporting documentation of software based on "Wnn":
    * "This software is based on the original version of Wnn developed by
    * Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences (KURIMS),
    * OMRON Corporation and ASTEC Inc."
    * 4) The names KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC not be used in advertising or
    * publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without
    * specific, written prior permission
    * KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC make no representations about the suitability
    * of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without
    * express or implied warranty.
    * Wnn consortium is one of distributors of the official Wnn source code
    * release. Wnn consortium also makes no representations about the
    * suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is"
    * without express or implied warranty.


    The following language codes have been used with non-English derived gairaigo. They have been derived from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the representation of names of languages" standard.

    zh Chinese (Zhongwen)
    de German (Deutsch)
    en English
    fr French
    el Greek (Ellinika)
    iw Hebrew (Iwrith)
    ja Japanese
    ko Korean
    nl Dutch (Nederlands)
    pl Polish
    ru Russian
    sv Svedish
    bo Tibetian (Bodskad)
    es Spanish
    it Italian
    lt Latin
    pt Portugese
    hi Hindi
    ur Urdu
    mn Mongolian
    kl Inuit (formerly Eskimo)

    And I have added the following, which are not in the Standard:

    ai Ainu
    ep Esperanto